OF GREEK SYNTAX THAT MAKE SEMINARIANS MAD
Participles can be substantive ("the one who runs"), adjectival/attributive ("the dog which was running"), or adverbial ("while she was running").
A present participle modifying a past tense verb should usually be rendered, "While they were running...".
Some participial constructions are periphrastic; they combine with the verb to be. "I am running out the door.")
The genitive absolute is particularly fun. Sometimes the subject of a participle is not the subject of the main verb. In such cases both the participle and the noun or pronoun with which it is associated are in the genitive case. Consider this example from Black (144): "When they had said these things (ei)po/ntwn au)tw~n tau~ta), the apostle went out.".
An infinitive is a verbal noun.
Sometimes the infinitive is preceded by the neuter singular article.
Some prepositions accompany the infinitive: dia/, ei)j, e)n, meta/, para\, pro/, pro/j. These constructions sometimes take on unique meanings.
The accusative of general reference is especially pleasant. An accusative noun or pronoun may serve as the subject of the infinitive.
Infinitives with dei~ and e)/cestin can occur: "It is necessary," or "It is permissable."
The infinitive can serve several functions: